Negative Effects of Untreated Hearing Loss2018-10-15T22:25:36+00:00

Negative effects of
untreated hearing loss

Hearing loss is the 3rd most prevalent chronic condition in older adults and is a significant cause of disability.11. Loughrey, D. G., Kelly, M. E., Kelley, G. A., Brennan, S., & Lawlor, B. A. (2018). Association of age-related hearing loss with cognitive function, cognitive impairment, and dementia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA Otolaryngology–Head & Neck Surgery, 144(2), 115-126.

The severity of a person’s hearing loss increases with age and negatively impacts social engagement, leads to greater physical limitation and frailty, and is associated with a greater number of chronic conditions.2,3,42. Panza, F., Solfrizzi, V., & Logroscino, G. (2015). Age-related hearing impairment—a risk factor and frailty marker for dementia and AD. Nature Reviews Neurology, 11(3), 166.
3. Pichora-Fuller, M. K., Mick, P., & Reed, M. (2015, August). Hearing, cognition, and healthy aging: Social and public health implications of the links between age-related declines in hearing and cognition. In Seminars in hearing (Vol. 36, No. 3, p. 122). Thieme Medical Publishers.
4. Allen, N. H., Burns, A., Newton, V., Hickson, F., Ramsden, R., Rogers, J., ... & Morris, J. (2003). The effects of improving hearing in dementia. Age and Ageing, 32(2), 189-193. Age Ageing. 2003;32(2):189-193.


social isolation
Social isolation
social isolation
Physical Injury
dementia
Dementia
Social isolation

Hearing loss is a primary cause of social isolation

Age-related hearing loss limits a person’s ability to communicate and engage fully with the people around them and their environment.55. Blustein, J., Weinstein, B., & Chodosh, J. (2018). Tackling hearing loss to improve the care of older adults. BMJ, 360, k21.

Lack of engagement is associated with negative health outcomes including increased risk of infection, inflammation, cognitive decline, and mortality.6,7,86. Cornwell, Y., & Waite, L. (2009). Social disconnectedness, perceived isolation, and health among older adults. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 50, 31-48.
7. Kiecolt-Glaser, J., Gouin, J., & Hantsoo, L. (2010). Close relationships, inflammation, and health. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 35, 33e38.
8. Penwell, L. M., & Larkin, K. T. (2010). Social support and risk for cardiovascular disease and cancer: A qualitative review examining the role of inflammatory processes. Health Psychology Review, 4(1), 42-55.


According to AARP, 1 in 5 people aged 65+ are socially isolated.99. Elder, K., & Retrum, J. (2012). Framework for isolation in adults over 50: AARP Foundation/Isolation Framework Project. San Diego CA: Research Works.
Social isolation

Increased risk for developing negative
behavioral symptoms

Uncorrected hearing loss may result in irritability, frustration, anxiety, and other behavioral challenges caused by sensory deprivation.10,1110. Huang, C. Q., Dong, B. R., Lu, Z. C., Yue, J. R., & Liu, Q. X. (2010). Chronic diseases and risk for depression in old age: a meta-analysis of published literature. Ageing research reviews, 9(2), 131-141.
11. Tambs, K. (2004). Moderate effects of hearing loss on mental health and subjective well-being: results from the Nord-Trøndelag Hearing Loss Study. Psychosomatic medicine, 66(5), 776-782.


5 million older adults worldwide experience depression later in life.1212. Viscogliosi, G., Andreozzi, P., Chiriac, I. M., Cipriani, E., Servello, A., Marigliano, B., ... & Marigliano, V. (2013). Depressive symptoms in older people with metabolic syndrome: is there a relationship with inflammation?. International journal of geriatric psychiatry, 28(3), 242-247. The Global Burden of Disease Study has predicted that depressive disorders will be a leading cause of disability by 2020 due to their significant impact on functioning and quality of life.1313. Schroeder, M., Krebs, M., O., Bleich, S., & Frieling, H. (2010). Epigenetics and depression: current challenges and new therapeutic options. Current opinion in psychiatry, 23(6), 588-592.
Physical injury

Hearing loss increases the risk of falling

Falls are the leading cause of both fatal and non-fatal injuries among older adults and greatly contribute to hospitalizations, morbidity, and mortality.1414. Grue, E., Ranhoff, A., Noro, A., Finne‐Soveri, H., Jensdóttir, A., Ljunggren, G., ... & Jónsson, P. (2009). Vision and hearing impairments and their associations with falling and loss of instrumental activities in daily living in acute hospitalized older persons in five Nordic hospitals. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 23, 635-643. Untreated hearing loss is associated with balance issues and increased risk of falling.1515. Kowalewski, V., Patterson, R., Hartos, J., & Bugnariu, N. (2018). Hearing loss contributes to balance difficulties in both younger and older adults. Journal of Preventive Medicine, 3(2).

National estimates suggest that one-third of older adults age 65+ fall each year and the risk of falling only rises with age.16,17,1816. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2013). Home and Recreational Safety. Falls Among Older Adults: An Overview. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/homeandrecreationalsafety/falls/adultfalls.html
17. Carroll, N. V., Slattum, P. W., & Cox, F. M. (2005). The cost of falls among the community-dwelling elderly. Journal of Managed Care Pharmacy, 11, 307-316.
18. Burns, E. R., Stevens, J. A., & Lee, R. (2016). The direct costs of fatal and non-fatal falls among older adults - United States. Journal of Safety Research, 58, 99-103.
falling
Older adults with mild hearing loss are three times as likely to fall1919. Lin, F. R., & Ferrucci, L. (2012). Hearing loss and falls among older adults in the United States. Archives of internal medicine, 172, 369-371.
hip fracture
95% of hip fractures are
caused by falling2020. Hayes, W., Myers, E., Morris, J., Gerhart, T., Yett, H., & Lipsitz, L. (1993). Impact near the hip dominates fracture risk in elderly nursing home residents who fall. Calcified Tissue International, 52, 192-198.
dementia
Falls are the most common cause of traumatic brain injuries2121. Jager, T. E., Weiss, H. B., Coben, J. H., & Pepe, P. E. (2000). Traumatic brain injuries evaluated in US emergency departments, 1992‐1994. Academic Emergency Medicine, 7, 134-140.
Physical injury

Increased risk of hospitalization

Individuals with hearing loss utilize health care services more regularly and experience a higher rate of hospitalization compared to those with normal hearing.22,23,2422. Barnett, S., & Franks, P. (2002). Health care utilization and adults who are deaf: relationship with age at onset of deafness. Health Services Research, 37(1),103.
23. Nachtegaal, J., Heymans, M. W., van Tulder, M. W., Goverts, S. T., Festen, J. M., & Kramer, S. E. (2010). Comparing health care use and related costs between groups with and without hearing impairment. International Journal of Audiology, 49(12), 881-890.
24. Green, C. A., & Pope, C. R. (2001). Effects of hearing impairment on use of health services among the elderly. Journal of Aging and Health, 13(3), 315-328.


Fall injuries are one of the 20 most expensive medical conditions to treat, generating billions of dollars in health care costs. According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the average hospital cost associated with falling is $30,000.1616. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2013). Home and Recreational Safety. Falls Among Older Adults: An Overview. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/homeandrecreationalsafety/falls/adultfalls.html
Dementia

Hearing loss contributes to dementia

Adults with moderate hearing loss are up to 3 times more likely to develop dementia (Johns Hopkins Medicine).

Hearing loss is associated with declines in all domains of cognitive functioning.1,251. Loughrey, D. G., Kelly, M. E., Kelley, G. A., Brennan, S., & Lawlor, B. A. (2018). Association of age-related hearing loss with cognitive function, cognitive impairment, and dementia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA Otolaryngology–Head & Neck Surgery, 144(2), 115-126.
25. Albers, M. W., Gilmore, G. C., Kaye, J., Murphy, C., Wingfield, A., Bennett, D. A., ... & Duffy, C. J. (2015). At the interface of sensory and motor dysfunctions and Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimer's & Dementia, 11, 70-98.
It contributes to dementia through changes in brain structure and functioning and increased cognitive load associated with the effort it takes to understand and communicate.1,19,25,26,271. Loughrey, D. G., Kelly, M. E., Kelley, G. A., Brennan, S., & Lawlor, B. A. (2018). Association of age-related hearing loss with cognitive function, cognitive impairment, and dementia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA Otolaryngology–Head & Neck Surgery, 144(2), 115-126.
19. Lin, F. R., & Ferrucci, L. (2012). Hearing loss and falls among older adults in the United States. Archives of internal medicine, 172, 369-371.
25. Albers, M. W., Gilmore, G. C., Kaye, J., Murphy, C., Wingfield, A., Bennett, D. A., ... & Duffy, C. J. (2015). At the interface of sensory and motor dysfunctions and Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimer's & Dementia, 11, 70-98.
26. Tun, P. A., McCoy, S., & Wingfield, A. (2009). Aging, hearing acuity, and the attentional costs of effortful listening. Psychology and aging, 24, 761.
27. Fratiglioni, L., Wang, H. X., Ericsson, K., Maytan, M., & Winblad, B. (2000). Influence of social network on occurrence of dementia: a community-based longitudinal study. The Lancet, 355, 1315-1319.
Hearing loss may precede the onset of clinically diagnosed dementia for older adults by 5 to 10 years.2525. Albers, M. W., Gilmore, G. C., Kaye, J., Murphy, C., Wingfield, A., Bennett, D. A., ... & Duffy, C. J. (2015). At the interface of sensory and motor dysfunctions and Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimer's & Dementia, 11, 70-98.

For individuals with dementia, inadequate hearing ability can exacerbate behaviors including delusions, hallucinations, and paranoia.2828. Mamo, S. K., Oh, E., & Lin, F. R. (2017). Enhancing Communication in Adults with Dementia and Age-Related Hearing Loss. In Seminars in hearing (Vol. 38, No. 2, pp. 177-183). Thieme Medical Publishers.

Hearing loss is a modifiable risk factor

Solving for hearing loss has the potential to reduce disability, slow down cognitive decline,
and minimize consequences associated with diseases and disabling conditions.44. Allen, N. H., Burns, A., Newton, V., Hickson, F., Ramsden, R., Rogers, J., ... & Morris, J. (2003). The effects of improving hearing in dementia. Age and Ageing, 32(2), 189-193. Age Ageing. 2003;32(2):189-193.

Learn how Eversound can be used to help reduce the negative effects of hearing loss
and help residents engage at group programs.


Learn more about Eversound
  1. Loughrey, D., G., Kelly, M., E., Kelley, G., A., Brennan, S., & Lawlor, B., A. (2018). Association of age-related hearing loss with cognitive function, cognitive impairment, and dementia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA Otolaryngology–Head & Neck Surgery, 144(2), 115-126.
  2. Panza, F., Solfrizzi, V., & Logroscino, G. (2015). Age-related hearing impairment—a risk factor and frailty marker for dementia and AD. Nature Reviews Neurology, 11(3), 166.
  3. Pichora-Fuller, M., K., Mick, P., & Reed, M. (2015, August). Hearing, cognition, and healthy aging: Social and public health implications of the links between age-related declines in hearing and cognition. In Seminars in hearing (Vol. 36, No. 3, p. 122). Thieme Medical Publishers.
  4. Allen, N., H., Burns, A., Newton, V., Hickson, F., Ramsden, R., Rogers, J., … & Morris, J. (2003). The effects of improving hearing in dementia. Age and Ageing, 32(2), 189-193.
  5. Blustein, J., Weinstein, B., & Chodosh, J. (2018). Tackling hearing loss to improve the care of older adults. BMJ, 360, k21.
  6. Cornwell, Y., & Waite, L. (2009). Social disconnectedness, perceived isolation, and health among older adults. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 50, 31-48.
  7. Kiecolt-Glaser, J., Gouin, J., & Hantsoo, L. (2010). Close relationships, inflammation, and health. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 35, 33e38.
  8. Penwell, L., M., & Larkin, K., T. (2010). Social support and risk for cardiovascular disease and cancer: A qualitative review examining the role of inflammatory processes. Health Psychology Review, 4(1), 42-55.
  9. Elder, K., & Retrum, J. (2012). Framework for isolation in adults over 50: AARP Foundation/Isolation Framework Project. San Diego CA: Research Works.
  10. Huang, C., Q., Dong, B., R., Lu, Z., C., Yue, J., R., & Liu, Q., X. (2010). Chronic diseases and risk for depression in old age: a meta-analysis of published literature. Aging Research Reviews, 9(2), 131-141.
  11. Tambs, K. (2004). Moderate effects of hearing loss on mental health and subjective well-being: results from the Nord-Trøndelag Hearing Loss Study. Psychosomatic Medicine, 66(5), 776-782.
  12. Viscogliosi, G., Andreozzi, P., Chiriac, I., M., Cipriani, E., Servello, A., Marigliano, B., … & Marigliano, V. (2013). Depressive symptoms in older people with metabolic syndrome: is there a relationship with inflammation? International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 28(3), 242-247.
  13. Schroeder, M., Krebs, M., O., Bleich, S., & Frieling, H. (2010). Epigenetics and depression: current challenges and new therapeutic options. Current opinion in psychiatry, 23(6), 588-592.
  14. Grue, E., Ranhoff, A., Noro, A., Finne‐Soveri, H., Jensdóttir, A., Ljunggren, G., … & Jónsson, P. (2009). Vision and hearing impairments and their associations with falling and loss of instrumental activities in daily living in acute hospitalized older persons in five Nordic hospitals. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 23, 635-643.
  15. Kowalewski, V., Patterson, R., Hartos, J., & Bugnariu, N. (2018). Hearing loss contributes to balance difficulties in both younger and older adults. Journal of Preventive Medicine, 3(2).
  16. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2013). Home and Recreational Safety. Falls Among Older Adults: An Overview. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/homeandrecreationalsafety/falls/adultfalls.html
  17. Carroll, N. V., Slattum, P. W., & Cox, F. M. (2005). The cost of falls among the community-dwelling elderly. Journal of Managed Care Pharmacy, 11, 307-316.
  18. Burns, E. R., Stevens, J. A., & Lee, R. (2016). The direct costs of fatal and non-fatal falls among older adults – United States. Journal of Safety Research, 58, 99-103.
  19. Lin, F. R., & Ferrucci, L. (2012). Hearing loss and falls among older adults in the United States. Archives of internal medicine, 172, 369-371.
  20. Hayes, W., Myers, E., Morris, J., Gerhart, T., Yett, H., & Lipsitz, L. (1993). Impact near the hip dominates fracture risk in elderly nursing home residents who fall. Calcified Tissue International, 52, 192-198.
  21. Jager, T. E., Weiss, H. B., Coben, J. H., & Pepe, P. E. (2000). Traumatic brain injuries evaluated in US emergency departments, 1992‐1994. Academic Emergency Medicine, 7, 134-140.
  22. Barnett, S., & Franks, P. (2002). Health care utilization and adults who are deaf: relationship with age at onset of deafness. Health Services Research, 37(1),103.
  23. Nachtegaal, J., Heymans, M. W., van Tulder, M. W., Goverts, S. T., Festen, J. M., & Kramer, S. E. (2010). Comparing health care use and related costs between groups with and without hearing impairment. International Journal of Audiology, 49(12), 881-890.
  24. Green, C. A., & Pope, C. R. (2001). Effects of hearing impairment on use of health services among the elderly. Journal of Aging and Health, 13(3), 315-328.
  25. Albers, M. W., Gilmore, G. C., Kaye, J., Murphy, C., Wingfield, A., Bennett, D. A., … & Duffy, C. J. (2015). At the interface of sensory and motor dysfunctions and Alzheimer’s disease. Alzheimer’s & Dementia, 11, 70-98.
  26. Tun, P. A., McCoy, S., & Wingfield, A. (2009). Aging, hearing acuity, and the attentional costs of effortful listening. Psychology and aging, 24, 761.
  27. Fratiglioni, L., Wang, H. X., Ericsson, K., Maytan, M., & Winblad, B. (2000). Influence of social network on occurrence of dementia: a community-based longitudinal study. The Lancet, 355, 1315-1319.
  28. Mamo, S. K., Oh, E., & Lin, F. R. (2017). Enhancing Communication in Adults with Dementia and Age-Related Hearing Loss. In Seminars in hearing (Vol. 38, No. 2, pp. 177-183). Thieme Medical Publishers.